Saturday, October 21, 2017

Deer prefer native plants leaving lasting damage on forests

deer


 This is a surprising finding and it will perhaps encourage more attention to deer husbandry and ultimately to wolf husbandry.  Of course that is a problem that will not be fully mastered until we  restore rural human density along with mind sharing for animal management.
 
We must start a program that actually establishes herd title and a natural harvest and a wintering policy to suppress wolf populations while retaining enough to provide scavenging services.  This can be done with the science at hand even if it will be like herding cats.
 
The problem is now becoming big enough....
 
Deer prefer native plants leaving lasting damage on forests 
 
October 6, 2017 by Lindsey Hadlock 
 
https://m.phys.org/news/2017-10-deer-native-forests.html 
 
When rampant white-tailed deer graze in forests, they prefer to eat native plants over certain unpalatable invasive plants, such as garlic mustard and Japanese stiltgrass. These eating habits lower native plant diversity and abundance, while increasing the proportion of plant communities made up of non-native species, according to a new study.



The findings were published in the open access, online journal AoB Plants. The study pooled data from previous studies conducted at 23 sites across the northeastern U.S.
 

"Overall, deer reduce community diversity, lowering native plant richness and abundance and benefiting certain invasive plants, showing that deer have a pervasive impact on forest understory plant communities across broad swaths of the eastern U.S.," said Kristine Averill, a research associate in Cornell's Section of Soil and Crop Sciences and lead author of the study.
 

By altering the balance of native plants in favor of a higher fraction of invasive plants, deer change forest plant ecology. In this way, invasive plants could have a bigger influence on the forest ecosystem and leave fewer opportunities for native animals who depend on the native plants. Such changes in plant community structures also have long-term impacts on forest regeneration, Averill said.
 

In the study, Averill and colleagues analyzed raw data from previous research. The data came from sites that each had multiple pairs of fenced and unfenced plots, where deer were mostly excluded from fenced plots. "We compared the plant communities where deer were excluded against the communities where they had access," Averill said.
 

The researchers were surprised to find that the diversity of invasive species - the total number of non-native species - and the total abundance (or land cover) of invasive plants stayed the same in areas where deer grazed and where they were excluded. Since deer find some invasive species unappetizing in favor of more palatable plants, deer indirectly promote the success of these invasives, Averill said.
 

"The study results suggest we should try to maintain lower deer densities through hunting and fencing if the goals are to support more native plants and foster reduced relative abundance of introduced plants," Averill said

Gargoyle' Encountered Near Zephyrhills


One thing poorly understood is that bat wings are way more effective than has been understood.  Their limitation may well be in temperature control  After all even a small wing span presents a natural glider wing.  That limits altitude.  Yet the pterodactyl likely spends much of its time deep in the sea where it pursues fish.

One of these reports essentially confirms the use of a gravity belt.  This cannot be natural and it supports my conjecture that we are looking at humans with a newly developed flying rig.

The natural gargoyle presents problems of its own as we lack an obvious evolutionary path for a six limb furry creature.  Now we have gravity control in the mix and extreme speed as well.  just what do these wings do.

The deer suggests blood feeding as we have seen elsewhere.  In this case there had to have been several around.

Again we have impressions and confusion and much may be in error here in terms of what the witness saw.  The apparent large segmentation presentation could actually be blood bladders for taking the blood back to its den and its young.

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2nd 'Winged Gargoyle' Encountered Near Zephyrhills, Florida


Friday, October 06, 2017 


http://www.phantomsandmonsters.com/2017/10/2nd-winged-gargoyle-encountered-near.html 
On September 22, 2017 I received a report of a winged gargoyle-like being encounter along a Florida road. There have been an increased number of sightings & encounters, similar to those in the Chicago area, that are surfacing nationwide.


I was contacted by AP who stated that a driver, who was filling him for him one night two weeks prior, encountered a winged being between his third and fourth stop near Zephyrhills (on Rt. 98 / US 301 at about 3:30PM). He said the driver saw this "thing" floating stationary about 15 feet off the ground next to a tree:



"As he got closer he realized it looked like a dark-colored humanoid in a cannonball position just floating in the air. Like frozen. He said by the time he asked himself "WTF is that?" The creature unraveled itself and it spread out its legs and giant bat-like wings. He didn't know what color the creature was but he said it was definitely a dark color and it had human-like legs. And he said at the same moment it spread its wings and legs it flew toward his truck at an unrealistic speed like a fighter jet. He said he almost crashed the truck in the ditch because it basically paralyzed him with fear. He said it happened so fast he didn't get a look at the face but he said it was probably between 5 and 6 feet tall and dark colored and it had human legs with bat wings. He also said that about a 1/2 mile before he saw the creature he saw a bunch of dead deer on the side of the road. Like piles of deer, 2 separate piles of at least four deer. He assumes it was eating them. The witness is a pretty soft-spoken dude and intelligent. The way he tells the story, I can tell it really freaked him out."

Following the link for further information.


Last night, I was once again contacted by AP with the following information:



"Hey Lon. This is AP. I spoke to you on the phone a couple weeks ago about how one of the drivers on my route saw the monster up in Zephyrhills, Florida. Well, I wanted to update you and tell you that I was off of work a couple nights ago and the guy who covered my shift,a different driver from the original email I sent you, also saw the creature. He texted me early in the morning and told me he was a believer now because he also saw the thing. His description was that it was tall like 6ft or so. He said it was dark gray and he also said that it had a big wingspan. Its body was very skinny and in segments like an ant. Thorax, abdomen, etc. He said it flew over the road from right to left. He said it flew so fast that it was hard to really make out what it definitively looked like. It was in the same area as well. But instead of on Rt. 98 it was on US 301 which is a road that 98 leads to. US 301 is a much longer and a darker road than Rt. 98. He also said that there were deer everywhere. So I'm starting to think that this thing eats deer. Also I'm starting to think that the full moon has something to do with this creature's activity. But obviously I'm just guessing. I'm driving out there right now, so if I see anything I will obviously update you again. Have a good day."


NOTE: I plan to talk to AP soon. I am asking anyone who is familiar with the area or who has seen something unusual, to please contact me. The Pasco County, Florida area is well-known for strange activity...I have documented several bizarre incidents over the years. Thanks. Lon





Friday, October 06, 2017 

6th 'Chicago Phantom' Sighting Reported in Little Village Neighborhood


The following account was forwarded to Manuel Navarette at UFO Clearinghouse on October 6, 2017:



I was coming out of Dulcelandia (3253 W. 26th St. in Little Village) on Wednesday (October 4, 2017) with my husband and we looked up and saw what looked like a large black bat fly over us. It flew across the street and over some trees. From what we saw, it must have been at least six feet tall and had wings that must have been ten feet in width. It looked like it had bat wings as they looked like they were part of its arms. As it flew over it was making a very loud screaming sound and was flapping its wings as it flew over the trees. I tried to get a picture of it, but it was over the trees in seconds and gone. We walked down the block to see if maybe we could see it before turning around and heading back to our car.


We I saw a flyer at a restaurant that we visited the next day and took down the information, and submitted this report. You can reach us at (number omitted for privacy reasons) and ask for (name omitted for privacy reasons) we are willing to talk about what we saw.

Abducted by Reptilian-Like Mermen




This is a unique report on reptilian like alien creatures not clearly of Terran descent.  All other reptilian reports are just as clearly of Terran descent.  We have a remarkable observation of a space ship and of a large crew.
 
At the same time it is noted that this could be the source of mermen reports.  The whole merman meme could well be alien to this planet, all of which explains the ease of communication and the stories.  There is certainly no clear evolutionary narrative that provides the merman option.

Clearly no intelligent species ties itself to the home planet at all and large ships go with the whole space meme.
 

Abducted by Reptilian-Like Mermen

Thursday

October 05, 2017

Here is an interesting account I first became aware of several years ago:


One day in 1995 at mid morning a local resident of Sudak in the Crimea named Georgiy, walked to an embankment on the Black Sea for a breath of sea air. With a goblet of beer with him he stepped down to the sand and watched the horizon. It was a calm and beautiful day. Suddenly something sneaked up to him from behind and put a rubber mask on his head, Georgiy struggles and grabs the mask under his chin and pulled it off, thinking it was some kind of stupid prank. But in the next second he found himself amid a huge hall, he could neither see the sea or beach or sky. There were huge screens on the walls, multitudes of various control panels with buttons and chairs in front of them. When he looked down, he saw that he was holding a rubber mask resembling that of blue reptilian “monster”, skin like a lizard, covered with warts.

Suddenly a door opened in the wall and three “monsters” entered the room. These resembled very much the face on the mask he was holding. They were tall, about 2 meters in height, blue in color, all covered entirely by warts; they were nude and were “awful” in appearance. One of them approached Georgiy and put his hand on his shoulder (the alien had three huge curved clawed fingers on his hand) and said in a low hoarse voice “Homo Sapiens”. Georgiy could see huge yellow fangs in his opened mouth. After that, seized by a terrific panic Georgiy began to scream, he jerked back, threw the mask on the floor and ran away. He entered a corridor and passed numerous oval doors, different screens and instruments. Overwhelmed by fear he ran into another room and there he was confronted by another blue reptilian humanoid. The humanoid opened his huge arms on his sides and said, “Where are you running to”?

After that he pressed something on the wall and Georgiy saw what he called an “abyss”, endless space everywhere. He could see stars and beautiful scenes in space. He was trembling with fear when one of the blue reptilians approached him took his hand and said, “Do not be afraid”. He then accompanied the witness to the next room. In that room he saw hundreds of reptilian humanoids standing in ranks. All were standing shoulder to shoulder and all were looking at the witness. Suddenly they moved aside and the witness saw a beautiful woman with light hair, sleeping on a small sofa, she was totally naked. He saw her for several seconds and after that the blue reptilians close ranks again and she disappeared from sight. The alien then accompanied Georgiy to a screen. There were stars on the screen. The reptilian pointed with his claw at one of the stars and said, “Earth”. After that he embraced the witness with his powerful three-fingered hands and said, “Stay with us. We have no time and death.” Terrified Georgiy could only say that he wanted to go back home, that his mother was waiting for him and begged them to let him go. The alien then said, “Well then is there anything you want to know?” Georgiy could only think of one thing at that point, “How long will my mother live”? The alien answered, “As much as your age now”. After that the star on the screen began to approach very fast and began to resemble the globe of earth, he could see clouds.


Suddenly Georgiy realized that he was standing near his house, but only in the opposite direction from where he had originally left. He had been gone for 5 hours. He noticed a peculiar detail; the coins in his pocket began to glow with a yellowish light when he took them out. This light disappeared in the morning. 

Source: Anton Anfalov quoting B. V. Ustinov in “The Secret Doctrine” / forwarded by Albert Rosales
NOTE: Albert Rosales commented "Interesting report involving possible reptilians abducting a human. Who was the woman he reportedly saw sleeping on the sofa?" Was the woman another abductee used to lure Georgiy to stay with them. Much of the information I have gathered on the reptilian species, including David Eckhart's accounts, tends to paint them as a very intolerant bunch that have little patience for humans. As well, they usually grab what the want and give little care as what happens to those they abduct. BTW, there are 'mermen' stories and legends throughout the regions next to the Black Sea, including the Crimea. Could these 'mermen' really be reptilian beings? Lon

Meet the Teen Who Beat Terminal Brain Cancer with Cannabis

 

 

 

 



What makes this native so compelling is the completely impossible cancer presented here.  Surgery is no option and Chemo promised nothing at all.  Yet the Cannabis oil halted the progress and reversed it.  Likely because the care was prematurely ended, it came back but then retreated once again.  This is reassuring.

This article is useful in that it describes the dosage and the length of time involved sufficient for any self medication to work well.  It does not describe THC content and that may well have been a limiting factor.

CBD based meds need to be made readily available ASAP.  right now our best supply is coming out of  THC optimized product rather than CBD optimized product and this confuses our data.
 
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Meet the Teen Who Beat Terminal Brain Cancer with Cannabis


Alysa Erwin is now cancer-free, and her family believes cannabis oil saved her life.

By Randy Robinson / Culture Magazine


April 9, 2014, 2:03 PM GMT

The following article first appeared in Culture Magazine:

https://www.alternet.org/drugs/meet-teen-who-beat-terminal-brain-cancer-cannabis#


At 14 years old, Alysa Erwin was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. As it would with any family, the news hit hard. "When the doctor called me to tell me Alysa had cancer, she said there wasn't a good outcome. There was no success rate whatsoever," said Carly, Alysa's mother.

"She told me all we could do was have hope."


But that was in 2011.


In 2014, Alysa is cancer-free, and her family believes cannabis oil saved her life. At the time, the Erwins’ outlook appeared grim. Doctors call her condition Grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, an inoperable cancer with a near-zero survival rate. Alysa's disease, caused by uncontrolled neuron growth, had spider-webbed throughout her brain. There were no individual tumors to target. A wiry network of cancerous cells penetrated so far into her skull that surgery was impossible. That meant Alysa would have to undergo aggressive chemo—and radiation therapies, a choice which leaves many terminal patients incapacitated during their final days. In Alysa's case, even with traditional medical treatment, doctors expected she'd survive for only another one or two years. The situation became desperate, and the Erwins sought out another choice.

Alysa's father David, heard about Rick Simpson's Phoenix Tears Foundation through Michigan Compassion, a medical cannabis organization. After watching the documentaries What If Cannabis Cured Cancer? and Run from the Cure, the Erwins decided cannabis oil was their best bet for Alysa's recovery.

"We knew what we wanted," Carly said, "but we wanted to hear her choice."


Alysa, presented with the options of chemotherapy or cannabinoids, tried the conventional route first. After just five days of popping Temedor pills—and enduring the debilitating nausea that comes with them—she abandoned chemo and went with cannabis. The Erwins were floored. They saw instant results.


Thirty minutes after she took her first half-teaspoon mix of concentrate and peanut butter, Alysa was laughing again. She was eating. Her pain vanished and she could hold down food. "She was like a regular teenager," her mother said.

As Alysa's tolerance built up, her mother increased the dose. During the first year, it was 1.5 milliliters a day. Afterward, it went up to 3 milliliters a day. For the longest time, the Erwins kept the treatment a secret from their doctor. They worried about legal repercussions stemming from the cannabis oil, as well as losing their medical care. Their doctor initially believed Alysa was still continuing chemotherapy, but the ruse didn't last long.But cannabis oil is potent, even for experienced patients. At first, Alysa struggled with the oil's somnolent properties. She spent the early days of treatment sleeping, waking up only to eat. The Erwins waited anxiously for four months while their daughter adjusted to the cannabis oil.

After the first three months of oil dosing, MRI scans showed the cancer stopped growing. After six months, the Erwins' doctor told them, "I can't believe she's walking." By this point, Alysa's tumors were shrinking. Follow-up exams confirmed the cancer's recession, but the results of Alysa's blood work didn't match the profile of a chemo patient. That's when the doctor became suspicious, and the Erwins finally confessed about the cannabis oil. Since cannabis is not officially recognized as a cancer treatment in the U.S., the doctor cautioned them about its use, but she never dissuaded the family from their course.

"Whatever you're doing, keep doing it," the doctor told them.

As with any unconventional therapy, controversy abounds. Some people are wary of giving kids cannabis as a medicine. Uncertainties about the cannabinoids' effects on the developing brain, as well as prohibitionist fears of "kids getting high," keeps the debate raging. In terms of the oil's intoxicating side effects, Alysa would like to dispel any ideas that she is just in it for the “high.” She says she doesn't enjoy the oil's bitter, waxy flavor. She's not entirely a fan of the medicine's psychoactivity, either.
 

"I don't really like taking my oil and just the experience with it because of being sick. It really ruined the taste for me," she said.
 

Alysa's mother dealt with criticism from other parents. "A lot of people ask me, 'How can you give your child marijuana? How can you let her get high like that?' But look at all those pills the hospital gives you. Those make you high, and they can shut down your kidneys." David also explained Alysa's tolerance keeps his daughter relatively straight. "If you ever met her, you'd see she doesn't look high. She doesn't act high." And through it all, Alysa, like most American teens, passed her driver's license test with flying colors. She even got a Chevy Blazer as a gift from her parents.
 

It's been a long, tough trek for the Erwins. Cannabis oil doesn't come cheap, but they received assistance from activist Gersh Avery, who showed them how to make their own oil. Donations from the community helped, too. As others provided charity to the family, stigma still stung the Erwins, particularly Alysa herself.
 

The worst she experienced wasn't the community’s reaction to her controversial cannabis therapy, but her terminal diagnosis. Alysa says she lost most of her friends after they discovered she was sick. Her "death sentence" became a source of constant teasing. School mates turned on her. "They were telling me I was going to die soon, so my opinion didn't matter," she recalled. Even her best friend fell off during the ordeal. "She said it was too hard to have a friend at 17 with cancer."
 

The bullying got so bad the Erwins pulled their daughter out of school. The new arrangement worked out, since her mother could take care of her as she healed. Currently, Alysa's wrapping up a high school diploma through online classes. Although Alysa was devastated by her former peers, one loyal friend did stick around. As a sign of solidarity for Alysa's fight against cancer, he and her older brother got tattoos together: Awareness ribbons with her name written along the bands.
 

In January 2013, a little over a year after the Erwins embarked on their journey, Alysa's MRIs came back with astonishing results. "Her scans were totally clear," her father said. "No tumors. No cancer. Nothing."
 

Alysa has spent the last year spreading awareness about cannabis oil as a cancer treatment. She's spoken at a number of conferences, and her story continues to inspire others to consider cannabis as a viable cancer treatment.
 

Today, she's looking forward to a new, healthy life as a college freshman. A compassion club set up a college fund for her, granting her an opportunity to study whatever she wants, wherever she wants.
 

"If I went with the conventional treatment, I don't think I'd even be here," Alysa said. "My medicine cured me and enabled me to be alive. To live with little side effect."
 
 
Alysa Erwin Beats Back Cancer Twice With Cannabis After Being Told She Had No Options, Twice



 26 Mar 2016  
 Posted by Ryan Cristián


1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars


A massive shift in awareness has come about in the US over the last decade. In many areas, the American public is beginning to not only see things in a different and more lucid light, but beginning to question that which has gone mostly unchecked for decades: the mainstream narrative.

When it comes to cannabis, despite the obvious mainstream anti-cannabis agenda, this nation has made its intentions known. Yet congress and the majority of government officials continue to drag their feet and give the topic the eternal political run-around in day-to-day politics; especially when it comes to action and the acknowledgment of what the American majority actually wants. This lack of action in regards to cannabis speaks louder than any words and is happening for the typical political motivation: money. The case of Alysa Erwin has become a beacon of hope and signal of change for those who are told their only option is to suffer the horrendous and terrifying effects of chemotherapy and its dismal success rate of about 3%.

When Alysa Erwin was 14 years old, she started noticing an odd sensation in her neck. She began experiencing debilitating headaches, blurred vision, nausea, major body pain, changes in personality and mood, and just felt sick and overall abnormal. During the many visits with their local doctor, the office refused to give her any scans and continually labeled her a hypochondriac, both behind her back and to her face.

After months of this unhelpful and patronizing administrative incompetence, Alysa’s mother, filled with frustration, took her back to the local hospital demanding some sort of brain scan. It was only then that a CAT scan was given. After seeing the build-up of fluid in her brain, she was next given an MRI. This was when it became apparent that her discomfort was not just a figment of her imagination, but that she was suffering from a serious ailment. Then, following an onslaught of tests, in the Spring of 2011, she was diagnosed with Grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma — brain cancer — at the University of Michigan hospital.

Due to the state in which her cancer was in at the time, the doctor was unable to administer any certain types of radiation. Yet, Alysa had made it clear that she did not want liquid chemo either way, so she was prescribed chemotherapy in pill form. Her parents were told she might live 18 to 24 months with chemotherapy treatments, but after only five days of its use, Alysa was overwhelmed by the sickening side effects and decided to discontinue the therapy. It was then that Alysa’s grandparents gave the Erwin family a desperately needed peek through the Orwellian shroud the American government maintains on the topic of cannabis; specifically its miraculous medical value.

Alyssa’s grandparents introduced her to Rick Simpson Hemp Oil, and the Phoenix Tears Foundation, and after watching the video What if Cannabis Cured Cancer it was then that her regiment of cannabis oil began.

The change in Alysa was seemingly miraculous. After being bedridden in pain and unable to eat, she ingested a half-gram in half an hour. Soon she was up, smiling and eating. Her first three-month checkup showed no further cancer growth. By January 2013, about the time she was expected to die based on the original projection, Alysa’s MRI showed her to be cancer-free.

According to the Phoenix Tears website, it is important for a cancer survivor to stay on what’s called a “maintenance dose” (Rick Simpson uses it himself to remain cancer-free after fighting off his skin cancer) to ensure the cancer does not return; as any cancer survivor will tell you, it all to often does, especially with the use of radiation chemotherapy.
“Once you have brain cancer like that, you always have to be on the oil,” says Alysa’s mother, Carly Erwin. “What’s the maintenance dose? We don’t know. Wish we had doctors on board because they’re so many questions. It’s awful.”
Due to the continuing Federal Government restrictions on cannabis and its research, despite the overwhelming evidence to support its medical efficacy, Alysa’s doctor would not discuss the cannabis oil treatment with the Erwins other than to say, “keep doing what you’re doing.” In the fall of 2013 the Erwins lost access to a continuous supply of cannabis oil. Their access to the life saving substance began to dangerously fluctuate. When they were able to acquire the much-needed oil, the quality wildly varied, so they weren’t sure how much to use. Maintaining a continuous supply can be quite dangerous because the user is technically operating on the fringe of the law, as well as it being very expensive. The Michigan Medical Marihuana Act doesn’t allow possession of more than two ounces at a time for patients, so they are required to continually and frequently go out in search of something that could land them in jail, even though it will most likely save their lives.

In January of 2014, an MRI still showed no cancer. Yet in April, the test was done with a different kind of machine, which showed a small spot on Alysa’s brain. At that time the doctors were unsure if the spot was simply due to the differing technology used. The family then left the hospital with the explicit understanding that the doctor would look into the abnormality and get back to her, which never happened.
“I thought no news is good news,” Alysa’s mother told us.
In the months that followed, Alysa began to lose weight and get sick once again. On July 21, she weighed 88 pounds. They immediately made an appointment with the doctor for the 24th, and after traveling all the way to Ann Arbor, they were told that her cancer had returned. The doctors gave her the same prognosis she received the last time: that the best they could do was extend the time she had left, but that her cancer was terminal and there was nothing else that could be done.

Of course the Erwin family was already well aware of the inaccuracy and fallacious nature of that statement and have since cured her cancer with cannabis oil for the second time. The reality is that these doctors are choosing not to advise the one thing that could actually save her life, for fear of some shadowed entity that will swoop down to relieve them of their medical license. At what point did the medical field become more about what the establishment wants and less about what the doctor believes can actually help a patient?

It was this very lack of concern for the actual patient (as opposed to their big pharma corporate sponsors) that forced Alysa to go without her maintenance dose of cannabis oil in the first place, which would have almost certainly kept her cancer at bay. If it wasn’t for the restrictive laws in place in Michigan and the nation as a whole, millions of dying Americans might have been given a second chance at life. These archaic Federal laws continue to keep this life-saving plant out of the hands of the millions who are told every day that no options are left to the them; or worse, that chemo is their only choice, when in fact, it is their only hope.

Friday, October 20, 2017

Mathematician Claims 6th Mass Extinction Is Coming To Earth SOON?

mass extinction

First things first. the Headline is wrong.  The source is a MIT Geophysicist and not a mathematician.  

The conclusion drawn has to be tentative at best but certainly suggestive.  It does tell us that another eighty years of carbon consumption at present rates and surely assuming a growth factor s well.  It is still a vast amount of carbon and plausibly well beyond our ability to actually supply at all.

What is surely true is that we are on the verge of completely exiting the whole carbon fuel system itself.  Carbon consumption will never reach the levels feared.
 Restoration of the Sahara and the whole arid part of Asia will demand ample carbon.  We may actually decide to simply burn huge amounts of carbon in order to satisfy the global demand.
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Mathematician Claims 6th Mass Extinction Is Coming To Earth SOON

Mac Slavo

September 21st, 2017

http://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/mathematician-claims-6th-mass-extinction-is-coming-to-earth-soon_09212017



According to MIT geophysicist Daniel Rothman, the sixth global mass extinction is right around the corner. Using his skills in mathematics, Rothman has determined that earth will be well into the sixth extinction phase by the year 2100.

Rothman began his math journey to determine our next extinction by investigating fluctuations in the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is the path carbon traces through Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere that has occurred over the last 542 million years. By analyzing 31 established carbon isotopic events recognized by geochemists, Rothman identified the ebb and flow of carbon–12 and carbon–13, which are two isotopes of carbon whose abundance has varied considerably in Earth’s history.

From this information, he constructed a database to assess how much carbon mass was pumped into the world’s oceans in each historical event. In most of these episodes, the carbon volume stayed under a certain threshold. But in some of them (including four of the past five mass extinction events that exterminated multitudes of life-forms on the planet) that threshold was breached. “It became evident that there was a characteristic rate of change that the system basically didn’t like to go past,” Rothman said about his findings.

According to Rothman’s math, there are only two ways carbon levels can exceed the threshold of a catastrophe. One is where CO2 emissions slowly swell over thousands and millions of years, slowly triggering a global calamity. The other case occurs on a much shorter timescale, where an immense shift in carbon volumes moving through the carbon cycle happens in the space of say, decades or years.


Rothman warns that by the year 2100, about 310 gigatons of carbon will have been added to the oceans. This is a potential “tipping point” for an ecological disaster, according to his study. That’s also the minimum amount of carbon expected to enter earth’s oceans by 2100. When CO2 dissolves into the ocean as it did in the case of the End-Permian mass extinction, all life on Earth is at risk.


The formula predicts that by the end of the century oceans will hold enough carbon to launch a mass extermination of species in the very near future. Rothman also stated that it would take about 10,000 years for the disaster to completely play out.

Morris Davis: Here's why I resigned as the chief prosecutor at Guantanamo




 I do not understand torture outside the tactical emergency where it can justifiably be applied.  Any information then is immediately testable and actually valuable.

That time window is extremely small with rare exceptions such as a known intelligence gold mine whose cooperation must be coerced and worked by a skilled interrogator.  So far we have justified the process for a couple of captures.

Otherwise it makes zero sense as a policy. It has been well shown that a skilled interrogator can do wonders mostly because neither the victim or the interrogator actually know the right answers or the right questions as often as not.  Discoveries are made with brush strokes.  It should be applied only by presidential approval outside a real tactical situation.

That Obama failed to address this is idiotic.

Trump loves to tell his audience what they want to hear because it was never a real promise.  Good policy may ensue.  After all who is there to negotiate with?

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Morris Davis: Here's why I resigned as the chief prosecutor at Guantanamo

Ten years ago today, I informed Gordon England, then the Deputy Secretary of Defense, that I could no longer serve as chief prosecutor for the military commissions at Guantanamo Bay. I requested immediate reassignment to another post and, within an hour, my request was approved. Soon after, I received an order not to speak to anyone about why I quit.


Here’s why I quit. Earlier that day, I had been handed an order, signed by England, that reorganized the chain of command, effective immediately. The order had placed Air Force Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Hartmann above me, and it had placed William J. Haynes II, the general counsel of the Department of Defense, above Hartmann.

 

Haynes, you might recall, signed the infamous torture memo — the one authorizing enhanced interrogation at Guantanamo that was approved by former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. It was in the margin of Haynes’ memo that Rumsfeld scribbled a comment about a four-hour limit placed on the amount of time interrogators could force detainees to stand upright. If he himself stood eight to ten hours a day, Rumsfeld wrote, why was the limit only four hours?


Hartmann had arrived a few months before, in July 2007, to serve as chief counsel to the official overseeing the military commissions. He was anxious to get convictions and wanted me to use all evidence, regardless of how it was acquired. For two years, my policy had been that the prosecution would not use evidence obtained by torture, because evidence obtained by torture is tainted. By the end of his first month, Hartmann had already tried to challenge this well-established fact.

 

When I learned that two men who sanctioned torture were above me in the chain of command, I concluded that I could not ensure fair trials for the detainees at Guantanamo. Nor could I put my head down and ignore the fact that the United States employed a practice it had long condemned.

I wish I could say that, in the following decade, the U.S. recovered from the shock of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, recognized the errors it made and regained its legal and moral standing on the issue of torture. That would be fake news.

 

I thought the election of Barack Obama, one year after I resigned, signaled the beginning of a new chapter in which America would atone for having veered off course. It was soon clear that my optimism was misplaced. After he was elected but before he was inaugurated, President Obama said of the torture program that the U.S would “need to look forward as opposed to looking backwards.” It was obvious that no one involved in sanctioning torture would be held accountable.

 

Obama’s decision may have been pragmatic in the short term, given the severe economic crisis he inherited. In the long term, history will remember it as a mistake. The government officials who had sanctioned torture enjoyed eight years of impunity during the Obama administration. This set the stage for Donald Trump to claim during the 2016 campaign that “torture works,” and that if he were president, he would bring back “a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding.”


Trump’s pro-torture rhetoric has so far gone unfulfilled, thankfully. But the issue should not even be open for discussion anymore. We have Obama’s inaction to thank for this.


There has been some recent progress, however. In August, the architects of the enhanced interrogation program, the psychologists James Mitchell and John “Bruce” Jessen, settled a lawsuit brought against them by the American Civil Liberties Union on behalf of three former detainees who said they were tortured at CIA prisons overseas, including one who died in custody. Every previous case in which former prisoners attempted to hold the U.S. government accountable for its torture program — including cases brought against government officials, employees and contractors — was dismissed.


Another step is an initiative in my home state of North Carolina. Later this fall, a citizen-led group, the North Carolina Commission of Inquiry on Torture, will hold a public hearing to take testimony from people who were involved in and affected by the interrogation program designed by Mitchell and Jessen. At this hearing, the group will also examine North Carolina’s role in facilitating torture by allowing its airports to be used for “torture taxi” flights, in which suspected terrorists were picked up abroad and transported to CIA black sites.

 

When I resigned a decade ago, I assumed that the U.S. would have closed the book on torture by now. I am disappointed that the issue remains unsettled, but heartened that there are groups seeking accountability. Injustices must not be forgotten. I intend to do my part to make sure Americans remember: Torture was wrong then, and it is wrong now.


Col. Morris Davis served as the chief prosecutor of the Guantanamo military commissions from September 2005 to October 2007. He was represented by the ACLU in a 2010 lawsuit against the Library of Congress.

Native American heritage is America’s heritage with robert thornton




Native American heritage is America’s heritage

 

  

 What is described here is disturbing to say the least.  It is as if all those ignorati you left behind after high school had headed into the woods to create their own barbarism and thought it was all right.  Another reason so many huddle in our cities.

Yet we try to make sense out of our world.  Do conspiracies really exists or are these initiatives the action of an effective mob who discovers an unprotected target.  It is hard to tell.

Our education system must up its game.  Even reading the bible to a class for one hour has enormous value.  It is how our ancestors learned their culture for thousands of years.  It still works as few of our peers truly master reading well enough to fully exploit it.  Our history stories respond as well.

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Native American heritage is America’s heritage

https://peopleofonefire.com/native-american-heritage-is-americas-heritage.html


The Spiritual Path of Native Americans could also become America’s salvation.

There are a whole bunch of people in the United States, who seem unaware that what they say and do these days is quite insane. Atrocities, such as those in Las Vegas and Orlando, are merely the tip of the societal ice berg. Meanwhile, there are many nations in the world, who dream of destroying the United States.  Russian imperialists want revenge for the breakup of the Soviet Union, by breaking up the our nation and NATO.  Muslim extremists see the United States and NATO as the only barriers to obeying Mohamed’s command in the Quran to capture the Vatican. 

If anyone is going to bring the nation back into the realm of sanity, it apparently will have to be Native Americans.  Rather than segregating ourselves into the image of being outsiders, indigenous descendants in the United States should stress that they represent the sane, moral values upon which healthy, self-sustaining societies are based.  The true “others” are those who have led our nation into self-worship, mindless violence, the sanctification of greed and the destruction of the natural environment.  

The $300 million drug bust in my county is eventually going to shock the public.  Trails are leading back to the Russian Mafia. However, the ground troops, who protected this operation were white Neo-Nazi’s from former “moonshine” families, who deluding themselves into thinking that they were “Christian Patriots.”  A substantial share of the profits went to support ultra-rightwing politicians and arm those, who want to fight a second Civil War.  These suckers would fulfill Vladimir Putin’s dream of a disunited United States, but are too stupid to know it.

They’re just robots and don’t know it

Over 20 years ago, when I was Principal Planner in the Cobb County, GA government, I was invited to several Republican socials.  At the time, Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich and Representative Bob Barr lived in Cobb and were at the peak of their power. Usually both men attended these parties to raise campaign donations. Conversations at these parties revolved around strategies for impeaching President Clinton and maintaining the control over Southern blue collar whites.

In a circle of political potentates, Gingrich joked that he could tell the white trash in Georgia that the Liberals and Gays were plotting to outlaw the use of pistols for suicide.  He said that they are so stupid that most of them would rush home that night and put a gun to their heads.  At the time, I laughed along with the others at this joke, but now I am not so sure that it was an exaggeration.  

Nevertheless, what immediately was obvious to me was that the wealthy “big shots,” who Southern blue collar whites idealized, actually held their most loyal voters in complete contempt.

Should it be any surprise then that these same thralls have been lured into quasi-secret organizations, which call themselves “Patriots,” but in fact are funded by the profits from selling meth and other poisonous drugs?  These groups are ultimately controlled by madmen and organized crime moguls, who want to destroy the United States.

A one-sided version of history

Invariably, journalists ask me why I put so much energy into the study of our Native American heritage, when I receive very little income from it.   My first response is that it is a lot more fun than dealing with real estate developers, who thought that they knew everything because they were wealthy . . . when much of time here in North Georgia, their wealth originally came from laundered drug money.  Well . . . they were once haughty . . . most of them went bankrupt eight years ago.

Seriously, I feel blessed that I have been put into a position to accomplish what my mother’s generation couldn’t.  An often honored teacher, my mother dreamed of putting the real Native American history of the Southeastern United States into the history books and also changing the focus of state history texts to the lives of “regular folks.”

I share that dream.  I look forward to the day when students around North America pick up their history books and learn that the real human history of the United States and Canada began with the Ice Age . . . not when Jamestown or Quebec was founded.  Mexican history text books have long begun with the Ice Age, because their educators recognize that the majority of Mexicans carry indigenous genes.

Making a scene at football games

There is a new question.  Twice in the past two weeks, journalists have asked me what I thought about the current fad of people kneeling during the National Anthem to protest past wrongs. Shouldn’t Native Americans be doing this also?


They seemed shocked when I responded that I didn’t think about it at all.  Personally, I always stand with pride when the National Anthem is played. This is my country and no one is going to take it away from me.  

Again, this is my opinion, but I told them that doing such symbolic acts was counterproductive.  Rather than painting themselves as outsiders with such symbolic acts, they should instead emphasize the major role that African Americans have played in the nation’s economic development and current cultural vitality.  Beautiful Downtown Savannah was made possible by the labor of African Americans picking lots and lots of cotton.  

I added that few people would have even noticed the fad, had not the media sensationalized it to sell advertising it and political demagogues sought to use it as a hate issue for their thralls.  They have beaten the “Crooked Killary Thang” to death.   

The “hate libruls thing” has not gone well.  First, 95% of Americans are not even political.  We are mainly concerned with economic survival, family issues and having a good time.  Then it was embarrassing when “librul radical terrorists” started using the same violent, irrational tactics that the KKK has used for a century.  By the way, you dummies sending me the unsolicited propaganda.  The words, “liberal” and “radical” have completely opposite meanings.

Well . . . it all reads out of Hitler’s Mein Kampf.  The demagogues pick out a small minority for the thralls to hate, so they will forget that they are being robbed blind by the demagogues.

Native Americans have allowed crazy people to establish the norms 

State history and anthropology textbooks in the United States treat Native American history as the history of “others.”   This is what the founders of the People of One Fire have always been determined to change.  For example, I have found that the archaeological reports from the LAMAR Institute at the University of Georgia’s Department of Anthropology consistently call Native Americans . . . Indians  . . . and Caucasians . . . Americans.  In other words, these archaeology professors consider only whites to be “real” Americans.  Yes, really!  If you don’t believe me, read their archaeological reports on the Nacoochee and Kenimer Mounds.

Native Americans should be considered just as much American as the immigrants, who squatted on our lands. In fact, they should be considered the real Americans. Indigenous heritage sites should be honored equally with such places as Jamestown, Virginia . . .  Port Royal, Nova Scotia  . . . and St. Augustine, Florida.  ALL indigenous burials should be governed by the exact same laws that govern the burials in Old Town Quebec, New York City and Waycross, Georgia. 

If you find Native American skeletons in Birmingham, Alabama, bury them with honor in a dedicated cemetery. Don’t dump them in a pit near the Coosa River!  The current NAGPRA laws were created by the federal bureaucracy, for the federal bureaucracy and to create more bureaucracy within federally-recognized tribes.  

My Christian Creek and Uchee ancestors were unearthed from a Methodist cemetery in Ruckers Bottom on the Savannah River. Caucasian skeletons in Ruckers Bottom were immediately re-interred at a new cemetery above the water level of Lake Russell.  My Native ancestors’ bones were first offered by the Feds to the Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina, who refused them.  The 100+ skeletons were held in a warehouse for several decades then buried en masse in a pit over 300 miles away at Moundville, AL State Archaeological Park.

That comical example of bureaucracy-behaving-badly is symptomatic of the situation that indigenous peoples have been manipulated into accepting as norm. The totally out-of-touch-with-reality staff of the US Forest Service in Gainesville, GA thought it was quite sane in 2012 for USFS personnel to cut down over a 100 trees to block the 200 year old access trail to the Track Rock Ruins and and then claim that a wind storm blew down few small trees and then when photographs proved otherwise, claim that Cherokee Nation officials 800 miles away in Oklahoma told them to do it.

Home grown crazy squatters

Well, my Creek grandparents would have called them “no good, edge-of-towner, white trash, “ but I will just use the word squatter.  I will close with some personal examples of how an insane squatter can do a lot of damage to a whole lot of people.  Of course, a recent, most horrific example occurred in Las Vegas.


My troubles began in 2000 when a delusional ex-Marine in Pickens County, GA law enforcement decided that I was a Communist draft evader because I worked in Sweden less than a year.   He filled the state crime information system with poppycock such as that I had served two prison terms for violent crimes and was a suspect for many vile crimes such has serial murders, being a major drug dealer, molestation of children of both genders, a male prostitute and a predator of college coeds.  

His sick mind was at work from almost immediately after my relocation to Pickens County in June 2000. I had an illegal, but magistrate-approved wire tap on my phone for 9 ½ years. Somehow, he always was able to have a key to my house, even after changed locks.  

When I visited the Jasper United Methodist Church for the first time . . . at a Wednesday night family dinner . . . all the people at my table simultaneously rose and moved to another table.  Throughout the nine years of hell in that community, local Nazi’s killed two of my dogs and constantly were attacking every other aspect of my life. They poured dirt into my HVAC system and dismantled my lawn mower.  They fried all of the electronics of my architecture equipment, while I was at real estate closing for re-financing my loan.  They stole my shop tools the day before I was to start work on my first model for the Creek Nation.  They discharged the freon from my air conditioning condenser then turned down the thermostat to 55 in early April –causing my entire HVAC system to be destroyed and a fire to break out along a electric cable. They sabotaged my car several times.  Twice I had to buy another car, because the damage was so severe.  . . . etc., etc..   

In their sick minds, these insane Nazi’s were doing good deeds to support the Prezident and THE WAR by ridding their community of librul queers.  I’m not gay and frequently dated women from outside the county . . . but they were convinced that I was a librul queer, because I had an IQ over 75, was an Injun and was not a member of the PARTY.  In fact, the bodies of at least 23 men and women, presumed to be homosexual, have been found in the national forest land of Pickens County.  One straight, married professional bicyclist was gunned down on a state highway, because his racing uniform had bright colors.  The never-arrested killers thought he was gay because of the bright colors.

Down the street was a female squatter in a Habitat for Humanity house.  On two occasions, her boyfriend dropped by to briefly see her with his pickup bed filled with iced and human body.  He then rendezvoused at the other end of the street with a truck hauling a front end loader (bulldozer).  They drove off northward to some anonymous tract of land.  They were doing their part to support the Prezident and the War by disposing of bodies.  Local squatter cops knew about the body disposal service and did nothing about it.  I did not know whose bodies were being disposed and I really did not want to find out.

Of course, the Georgia Bureau of Investigation eventually removed this garbage about me from their computer, but my reputation was stained for the entire nine years of hell in Pickens County.  Two weeks after the Assistant Director of the Crime Information System removed the false data on me, his two parents in Gainesville, GA were murdered in their beds. Was there a connection?  I don’t know, but he soon after retired from the GBI at age 38.

Even though I had just won a major architectural award for the restoration of the 1870 Bartow County, GA courthouse,  the Pickens County commissioner refused to let me even submit my qualifications for designing an addition to their courthouse.  Gawd is the addition they put up, ugly!   When the State of Oklahoma sent out a press release announcing that I had been selected to design the Trail of Tears Memorial in Tulsa, the Pickens County Progress newspaper refused to publish the article, even though the Atlanta Journal Constitution did.  

The whole “being evicted on Christmas Eve” thang in 2009 was meant to show residents of Pickens County what happens to people, who refuse to become insane like their powers-that-be.  It kind of back-fired on them, so by the time I moved from a chicken house in Union County to this hovel in the Dahlonega area, I was the national architecture columnist for the Examiner and about to be on national television because of discoveries made while I was homeless.

Crazy squatters that don’t even know they’re crazy

Here in the far more civilized Dahlonega, GA area, the emphasis has shifted among the Nazi squatters from direct persecution to social manipulation.  There are only a few dozen Nazi squatter families in this county, but their impact on criminal activity and projection of ignorance can often exceed their numbers . . . despite the fact that the vast majority of residents represent all that is best in the United States.

These squatters espouse all the typical neo-Nazi insanities like equating “do-gooders and tree huggers” to Satan and fascism with Christianity.   Apparently, they also equate organized crime and running drugs with Christianity.  The profits from the biggest drug bust ever ($300 million) that recently occurred in this county, plowed much of its profits into buying military arms, training “patriotic” domestic terrorists and bribing politicians. 

Very soon after arriving here, “someone” put a tracking device or devices in my car.  I am trying to persuade law enforcement to remove it, since it is illegal and I can’t afford the $1600 to $2400 that certain private detective agencies in Atlanta demand for removing such things.   

I am still not sure whether my car was being tracked on a University of Georgia Campus Police screen or some other law enforcement agency.  In 2013,  I was interviewing a lady for an Examiner article on agriculture.  She suddenly received a cellular call from a person with a “US Government” phone ID.  The man told her that she was being watched by a satellite . . . that I was crazy and to not pay any attention to what I said about the Mayas.  Shaken up afterward, she asked me what a Maya was.


Nevertheless, among the squatters, the temptation of a tracking device was more than they could resist.  It gives them a warm, fuzzy feeling to secretly have control over others. 

For two years, a certain University of North Georgia campus cop would race out to Morrison Parkway to protect the coeds from me as I was passing the edge of the campus on the way to Walmart or Atlanta.  Rogue cops then planted coeds as cashiers at the Fresh and Frugal Supermarket, since I never went on the campus. Having been involved with covert work for the FBI in Virginia , I knew exactly how to spot someone wearing a bug.  When these wanabe Mata Hari’s clearly asked me my age so the tape recorder could pick it up,  I told them . . . 85  . . . and then reminded them that I was so ugly that farmers used my photos as scarecrows.  

That produced nothing so the rogue cops planted male students as cashiers – a tactic that ended quickly.  This is something consistent I have noticed about rogue cops in the Southeast.  They think that if you are not attracted to 18 year old female baits, presenting themselves as being 16, you must be gay.  It makes me suspect that a lot of perverts in Dixie enter law enforcement in order to conceal their perversions.

In 2014 the strategy shifted to manipulating my social environment in attempt to make me think that I was the only person in the State of Jawja, who was not a crazy, Nazi squatter.  “Oh woe is me Miss Scarlett . . .  I have no friends here because I don’t celebrate Adolf Hitler’s birthday!  Lordy mercy, the only way I am going to get me a bleached blond squatter woman is to act stupid and join the Party.”


When the state drastically liberalized concealed gun laws, the first impact was on a tourist from Texas. She was killed on a sidewalk in Helen, GA by a bullet from a misfired concealed pistol on a man from PICKENS COUNTY, who was sitting at a bar across the street. A state legislator from Pickens County had sponsored the bill. The word “librul” is only considered Christian in the United States these days, if it involves greater access to guns.

However, our local squatters decided to let me know that they’uns were carrying pistols too!  So whenever “somebody’s” computer screen or Smart Phone showed me making a trip into Dahlonega, all available squatters would rush to where I was shopping or pumping my gas to show that they’uns had guns.  This was particularly ludicrous when the same squatters were walking back and forth in front of me at Walmart, so I could see their little semi-automatic pistols from all sides.

Earlier this year, the squatters became concerned about preserving their Southern heritage.  Never mind that most of the mountain counties in Georgia were pro-Union. Most of their ancestors were either evaders from the Confederate draft, deserters, bushwhackers or Union soldiers. Georgia Mountain companies in the Confederate Army were so undependable and prone to desertion that they were intentionally placed long distances from home in non-combat assignments.

So for a period of a couple of weeks, whenever the dot that symbolized my car on the computer screen started moving, all available squatters raced to Dahlonega to show off their shirts and coats adorned with Confederate flags.  They would race up to be behind me at cash registers or stare at me grinning when I was pumping gas.


These people are so crazy that I don’t even understand what message they were trying to give.  All my great-great grandfathers were in the Confederate Army and served for the duration of the war. All either surrendered at Appomattox, VA or Greensboro, NC.   So what were these squatters trying to make me think?  All people in the United States like to wear Confederate flags on their clothes?

The latest “thang” over the past month is for the squatters to try to incapacitate my car.  They’re back to using the Electronic Pulse Weapons and also tried to get my car involved in a wreck.  They give themselves away because they stare at my car for several hundred yards in advance.  I have 20-5 vision.  This leads us to the key message of this essay.


Is this another Hurricane Maria?

I have given a lot of thought to understanding the motivations behind all these strange things done by the squatters.  Why would they not want me to have a working automobile?  

The squatters obey the orders of the Boss Hoggs blindly.   So what are the Boss Hoggs up to?   The Boss Hogg’s control their Baptist churches with big donations, but their boss is Satan.


Plugging in all the dependent and independent variables into a multiple regression equation comes out . . .   .   an attempted insurrection, while most of our armed forces are focused on the Pacific Ocean. My guess is that when in a few days, we will be manipulated into a Korean War . . . a war far more terrible than the ones in Iraq  and Afghanistan or even the original Korean War.  It will be an opportune time to declare “Southern Independence.” 

I might be wrong.  Let’s hope so.  However, may I remind you that long before the last presidential campaign, I warned you with personnel experiences about the dangerous, corrupting influences of the Russian Mafia in the Southern Highlands.  

I was proved correct.  A few months ago, federal law enforcement announced arrests of officials in the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, plus a Cherokee tribal council member, who was also Assistant Director of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.  They were involved with the illegal issuance of student visas and permanent resident cards to large numbers of young people from the former Soviet Block.


Just stay vigilant in the coming days, look out for each other and don’t be surprised, if the current FBI task force finds that the Russian Mafia played a major role in deciding our last election.   The Russian Mafia practically owns Atlantic City and many of their top leaders live in Livingston, NJ . . . hometown of Jared Kushner, who is himself, first generation Russian American.

Why Small States Are Better

italy.PNG

 

An interesting debate that completely misses the most important issue regarding states. They are all based on the establishment of a hierarchy for governance. This fails the further removed a natural community is from the apparent source of power. Thus natural imbalances promote conflict whose natural resolution is resisted by even individuals.

All of which undermines the legitimacy of the State concept.

My solution to this is to formally establish engineered natural communities for the poor initially and apply the rule of twelve to establish internal credit allowing optimal internal growth.  The State would still act to arbitrate money and power as necessary but not often.

This approach also allows a super state to evolve as well without the striving for irrational and intangible power.
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Why Small States Are Better

Philipp Bagus

Andreas Marquart

 https://mises.org/blog/why-small-states-are-better

Andreas Marquart and Philipp Bagus (see their mises.org author pages here and here) were recently interviewed about their new book by the Austrian Economics Center. Unfortunately for English-language readers, the book is only available in German. Nevertheless, the interview offers some valuable insights. 

Mr. Marquart, Mr. Bagus, you have released your new book „Wir schaffen das – alleine!” (“We can do it – alone!”) this spring. The subtitle says: “Why small states are just better.” To begin: Why are small states generally better than larger ones?

Andreas Marquart (AM): In small states the government is closer to its citizens and by that better observable and controllable by the populace. Small states are more flexible and are better at reacting and adapting to challenges. Furthermore, there is a tendency that small states are more peaceful, because they can’t produce all goods and services by themselves and are thereby dependent on undisturbed trade.

How far can the principle of small states go? You are for example open to the idea of Bavaria seceding from Germany, or Upper Bavaria then from the rest of Bavaria. Ludwig von Mises stopped at the communal level, thinking that the secession of individuals would be unrealistic. You as well? Is there a point when your rule – the more decentralized the better – is not true anymore?

Philipp Bagus (PB): In principle not. We don’t want to arrogate, however, to know the optimal size and to say that this state is too small and that one too big. The optimal size would be determined in competition through the right of secession. If an apartment tower or street secedes from its municipality and then concludes that there are problems which were previously done better, then the secession could be revoked and the two entities reunited. Are they are better off alone, however, they will stay seceded. In this competition it will then show how successful small states can be.

At the moment we see more and more attempts around the world to secede – Brexit for example or recent attempts by Scotland and Catalonia. What all these cases have in common is that the secession is executed by governments which are economically more on the Left, and by that probably no advantage can be seen for the seceding entity, since the newly gained freedom is used immediately for more state intervention. Are cases such as these, where the secession would bring forth downsides for that country, also to support?

AM: Generally secession attempts should always be supported. The citizens must have a right to self-determination. Even the UN charter says that a people or a nation has the right to establish its own state or to join another nation. If a region wants to secede to try again if socialism works, then so be it. We learn from mistakes. And the smaller the states, the quicker and clearer the mistakes will become visible and the quicker changes have to implemented. After Brexit for example Britain will be under immense pressure to set itself apart from the EU. By the way, I don’t know any government and close to no party in Europe or any other country which isn’t in some way on the Left. In which way for example is the conservative CDU in Germany any different than the social democratic SPD or the Greens? Or the “classical liberal” FDP? Real classical liberal or liberty-oriented politics cannot be found anymore. All the differences are mere nuances and everyone is similar to each other in a more or less social democratic mishmash.

Would it be possible in your model that small states still cooperate with each other in supranational organizations? Or are the EU, NATO, UN etc. all obsolete in the end?

PB: Of course small states could or even have to cooperate with one another, especially on defense – at least as long as larger states still exist, which have a tendency to be more aggressive. Forms of cooperation like free-trade zones or also organizations which contribute to the harmonization of standards would exist. The EU in its current form is pointless, it has outgrown its original purpose of a pure cooperation.

On foreign policy you argue that small states conduct less wars. For many this will sound unintelligible at first, considering the common picture of the Middle Ages, where there were many more small states than today, is one of constant conflicts between kings and nobility. Why doesn’t this have to be the case?

AM: I don’t think we can compare those days with today. We are on a totally different level in terms of civilization. What has not changed of course: wars are about resources. In the past, most fighting occurred over land since farming was so significant and was in no way as productive as it is today. And when there were no possibilities to trade in the Middle Ages, it wasn’t too tragic, because the division of labor had nowhere near the significance it has today. Because of the very advanced international division of labor no small state of today can afford to deny itself from foreign trade or that the flow of goods is stopped – at least as long as it doesn’t want its population to starve as it happens in North Korea. So one has to behave peacefully. Just look at Liechtenstein: They haven’t even had an army since 1868. Free trade is the ultimate guarantor of peace.

You often use the example of Switzerland in your book. In which ways does this country show how small states work?

PB: It relies on free trade, open borders, has relatively low taxes, a high standard of living and didn’t have to moan over war deaths in the twentieth century. It is often asserted that small states can’t protect its population, that it would lead to different standards or new trade barriers which would prevent trade from happening, or that it would be overrun by economic refugees. Switzerland is the counterexample.

As good as Switzerland – or also small states such as San Marino or Liechtenstein – may work, there are still counterexamples like Belgium, a country which has always remained neutral, but was still overrun by Germany in both World Wars – among other things due to its overall weakness. How does the sorrow of Belgium fit into the overall picture?

AM: For one we are not saying that a world of small states would be heaven on earth. Libertarians should in general watch out for not creating the impression that in the world they describe all problems we are fighting over today would vanish. We can assume nonetheless that in a world of small states both World War I and II would not have happened in all likelihood. And if the gold standard hadn’t been suspended at the beginning of World War I, the war – if he had broken out at all – would have been over within a few days, since the warring parties would have run out of money. Of course there could arise the situation that a small state is threatened by a “big neighbor.” In this case the small state can enter a defense alliance. Examples from the past – the Hanseatic League or the German Confederation – are manifold. In the same way that goods and services are organized on the market to cover the demand of the consumers, alliances between small states would organize if they demand protection and security. Humans are very ingenious if they are allowed to act freely. We shouldn’t underestimate this ability.

Followers of the realist school of thought would probably argue that the idea of small states is surely nice, but that in the world we live in not everyone thinks that way. To give examples: Wouldn’t it be possible that assuming the US breaks apart, Russia would quickly invade Eastern Europe? Especially at the end of World War II, the Soviet Union would have had the chance to conquer the entire continent, but there was the US and Great Britain who restored the balance of power. Aren’t major powers on the global stage in this sense necessary to prevent the not-so-friendly states – who would never be pleased by the idea of small states – from taking over?

PB: Clearly we have to stay realistic. The Soviet Union would also have had the chance to subdue entire Europe at the beginning of World War II, when a Greater Germany was opposed to them. The Soviet Union possibly would have conquered the entire continent if the many small German states of the early nineteenth century had continued to exist. But maybe the German small states would also have implemented a common defense, we don’t know. To guarantee to win a war is impossible. Going back to today: Even if the US would break apart they could still forge a common defense alliance and the Baltic states could also search for allies and make a Russian attack as expensive as possible – for example by arming the populace. Maybe the separated US wouldn’t be as aggressive anymore abroad which would lead to fewer wars. We should also keep in mind that since World War II we are in a nuclear age which deters aggressors. Even after a split by the US this deterrence would remain. Moreover – as mentioned already – because of globalization the costs of war would increase constantly between mutually connected economies.

Specifically libertarians in the US are often accused of being in favor of isolationism or even autarky whenever they demand to leave supranational organizations, to intervene less in foreign conflicts and to look at the national interest first. Why is this accusation missing the mark?

AM: The problem is that the terms “isolationism” and “non-interventionism” are lumped together by proponents of an interventionist foreign policy. Non-interventionism – that means trade with other countries, travelling to other countries, cultural exchange, respect for one another, but not meddling in the affairs of other nations – has nothing to do with “isolating” oneself. I wouldn’t take the accusation of advocacy for autarky serious. By mixing up terms it is obviously tried to color libertarians in backwardness to win over support for an interventionist foreign policy. The type of foreign policy the US is conducting needs a certain amount of support from the population. This is only possible, though – when one doesn’t have any arguments – by discrediting the opponents.

You have an entire chapter in your book on monetary systems and why they would work better in a world of small states. We at the Austrian Economics Center are of course particularly interested in that. Could you shortly outline the advantages on that specific point?

PB: Larger states also imply monetary harmonization. Monetary competition in the Eurozone has declined due to the introduction of the euro. Before the euro, a Spaniard could buy DM, Franc or Lire to protect himself against inflation.  One could see which monetary policy worked better and which worse. The Dutch central bank for example followed the German Bundesbank. So there was an institutional competition and a trial and error process. Today we have an Italian monetary policy for everyone in the Eurozone. Small states have to offer their citizens stable currencies or attach themselves to stable currency zones or else they will quickly lose companies and citizens. Borders aren’t that far away after all.

On a final note the everlasting question that libertarians get to hear sooner or later: Only theory or also imaginable in reality? Do you think we will ever see a world of small states, a world in which those states live next to each other peacefully and a world in which free trade over borders is possible without any problems (or where borders become even completely irrelevant)?

AM: It sounds as if you are asking if it isn’t utopian to imagine a world of small states – but utopian is only what is not working in practice. A world of small states can work. And the path to that point? Brexit could be the beginning of the end for the EU. If Britain is smart, it will lower taxes and embrace truly free trade. By that, they could trigger an economic boom in Britain, encourage other countries to imitate them and put pressure on the individual EU members to follow. Another possibility is the collapse of the paper money system which unavoidably would lead to distribution battles. Distribution battles in the sense that wealthier regions, having their own problems, will refuse to co-finance others – northern Italy, Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg for example. Borders can only become irrelevant concerning free trade, though. Otherwise they are needed. Only through borders can bad governments, which will exist, be challenged.
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